Facebook pledges fewer content removals, new criteria as yet unclear

A man poses with a magnifier in front of a Facebook logo on display in this illustration taken in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, December 16, 2015.   REUTERS/Dado Ruvic/Illustration/File Photo


Facebook will allow more content on its platform that it would have earlier removed because it violated its standards, with new criteria being worked out, a senior executive said on Monday, following a row over the removal of an iconic Vietnam War photo.

His comments came on the same day that more than 70 rights groups asked Facebook to clarify its policies for removing content, especially at the behest of governments, alleging the firm had repeatedly censored postings that document human rights violations.

Only a month ago, the company and Norwegian Prime Minister Erna Solberg came into conflict after Facebook deleted the photo of a naked Vietnamese girl fleeing a napalm attack, called “The Terror of War”.

Solberg posted the photograph on her Facebook page after the company had deleted it from the sites of a Norwegian author and the newspaper Aftenposten, which mounted a front-page campaign urging Facebook to permit publication.

“We have made a number of policy changes after The Terror of War photo. We have improved our escalation process to ensure that controversial stories and images get surfaced more quickly,” said Patrick Walker, Facebook’s director of media partnership for Europe, Middle East and Africa.

“(And) in the weeks ahead, we are going to begin allowing more items that people find newsworthy, significant or important to the public interest, even if they might otherwise violate our standards,” Walker told a meeting of the Association of Norwegian Editors in Oslo, to which he was invited following the row.


Walker’s comments echoed an Oct. 21 blog post by Joel Kaplan, Facebook’s head of global public policy, and Justin Osofsky, Facebook’s head of global operations and media partnerships, in which the executives said the firm would change its guidelines on removing content.

“Our intent is to allow more images and stories without posing safety risks or showing graphic images to minors and others who do not want to see them,” they wrote.

On Monday, Walker told Reuters Facebook was at the beginning of the process of changing its guidelines and could not give further details.

Reuters reported on Friday that an elite group of at least five senior executives, including chief operating officer Sheryl Sandberg, regularly directs content policy and makes editorial judgment calls, particularly in high-profile controversies.

To the audience of journalists, the Facebook executive said the company had to have global standards of content as it was mindful that content, such as nudity, that was acceptable in one country may not be acceptable in another.

Many were left unconvinced after the debate.

“Facebook is trying to isolate this as a question of rules about nudity, about being careful. But this is not the question I am raising,” Espen Egil Hansen, the editor-in-chief of Aftenposten, told Reuters.

“The question is whether they now have such a dominant role in distributing information and news that they are becoming a threat against important democratic processes.”

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Categories: Content, graphic images, Hate Crimes, News, nudity, Viet Nam photo

Turkey says gives U.S. new documents on Gulen extradition request


Turkey has handed over to the U.S. Justice Department further documents to back its request for the extradition of U.S.-based Muslim cleric Fethullah Gulen, who Ankara accuses of orchestrating a failed July 15 coup attempt, Turkey’s justice minister said on Thursday.

Justice Minister Bekir Bozdag said that in a meeting with Attorney General Loretta Lynch in Washington on Wednesday he gave U.S. authorities three new folders of evidence they had sought over Turkey’s accusations against Gulen.

Bozdag described his meeting with Lynch as “fruitful,” saying it helped the two sides better understand each other’s positions. But he told reporters Lynch expressed neither support nor opposition for Turkey’s request that the United States extradite Gulen.

The Turkish cleric, who has lived in self-imposed exile in Pennsylvania since 1999, has denied involvement in the coup attempt.

Turkey is a critical ally of the United States in its fight against Islamic State militants in Iraq and Syria.

Turkey’s presidential spokesman said earlier this month that the United States does not appear to have understood the seriousness of Turkey’s call to extradite Gulen.

The Justice Department said in a statement that Bozdag and Lynch discussed that in both Turkey and the United States “extraditions are subject to the judicial process, and accordingly must meet the evidentiary standards of the requested country.”

Bozdag said the folders he gave Lynch contained information and documents that U.S. officials had requested when visiting Turkey in August. He declined to elaborate. The Justice Department also declined to comment on the material Bozdag said he provided.

The Justice Department has not taken any steps to initiate extradition proceedings against Gulen based on the information that Turkey has provided so far. Turkey has criticized the United States for not moving faster on the matter.

Turkey has arrested more than 35,000 people, detained thousands more and sacked over 100,000 people over what it says are links with Gulen since the coup attempt.

Bozdag said at Thursday’s press conference that the purge was “not 100 percent over.”

He added that Turkey has “zero tolerance” toward torture, denying a recent Human Rights Watch report that alleges Turkey’s security services have tortured people who were detained after the coup attempt.

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Categories: Coup, Fethulla Gulen, Hizmet Movement, News, Turkey, US Extradition

Twitter cuts jobs with eye on 2017 profit; Vine discontinued

The Twitter logo is shown at its corporate headquarters  in San Francisco, California April 28, 2015.  REUTERS/Robert Galbraith


Twitter Inc said Thursday it would cut 9 percent of its global workforce to keep costs down even as quarterly results eclipsed Wall Street’s beaten-down expectations, lifting shares that had fallen after a failed effort to sell the company.

More than 300 Twitter employees will be affected by the layoffs as part of a broader restructuring, a figure similar to an earlier round of reductions announced a year ago. Separately, the company announced it would discontinue Vine, a video app launched in 2013 that played brief clips on a repeat loop that struggled to compete with Facebook’s Instagram.

The reductions of staff and services were blunted somewhat by the backdrop of third-quarter revenue growth that slowed sharply but topped analysts’ expectations. Its stock was up 1.6 percent to $17.56, after rallying 5 percent in premarket trading.

Revenue rose about 8 percent to $616 million, above the average analyst estimate of $605.8 million. The company had reported a 20-percent rise in revenue in the previous quarter and 58 percent in the year-ago quarter.

Twitter, which has seen user growth stall amid competition from nimbler rivals such as Instagram and Snapchat, said its user base ticked up 3 percent to 317 million average monthly active users in the quarter.

Analysts, on average, had expected 316.3 million monthly active users, according to market research firm FactSet StreetAccount.

“The building blocks for revenue are increasing the number of users, and Twitter is not doing a particularly good job of that,” Wedbush Securities analyst Michael Pachter said. He added that Twitter needed to grow revenue by $200 million to $300 million a quarter to achieve 2017 profitability.

“The run-rate for the year is under $100 million in profit, so it is really hard to justify spending $15 or $18 billion to buy a $100-million profit (company),” Pachter said.

Total advertising revenue of $545 million grew 6 percent year-over-year, and 90 percent of it came from mobile.

Excluding items, the company earned 13 cents per share, beating the average estimate of 9 cents, according to Thomson Reuters I/B/E/S.

The company is “more disciplined about how we invest in the business” and intends to be profitable in 2017, said Chief Financial Officer Anthony Noto.

Among its priorities, Twitter is dedicated to growing its burgeoning live video offerings through partnerships with organizations such as the National Football League, Noto said. Advertisers are increasingly interested in live video because of its potential to reach new and younger audiences, he added.

Twitter hired bankers last month to field acquisition offers, but it has seen a dearth of potential bidders. Salesforce.com Inc, the last of a small cohort of companies including Walt Disney Co and Alphabet Inc believed to have been interested, said recently it would not pursue a deal.

The apparent lack of interest forced the social media company to consider a route anathema to aspiring tech startups: a major restructuring.


Twitter had 3,860 employees globally as of June. The reduction of more than 300, chiefly in its sales, partnerships, and marketing efforts.

The cuts come about a year after a similar wave of layoffs of up to 336 employees were announced when Jack Dorsey, its co-founder who had been serving as interim chief executive, took over as permanent CEO. Since then, Dorsey has drawn criticism from some analysts for splitting his time between Twitter and Square.

The company said it expected cash expenditures of about $10 million to $20 million in the fourth quarter, mostly for severance costs.

On an investor call Thursday, Dorsey said he would not comment on speculation about a potential sale. He said in a statement that the company has “a clear plan, and we’re making the necessary changes to ensure Twitter is positioned for long-term growth.”

Asked by investors whether major events such as presidential debates or the Olympics affected Twitter’s quarterly growth in metrics, Noto said there needed to be such an event “every day” on the platform to meaningfully improve numbers, and “that’s where we’re headed.”

The popular but money-losing microblogging service spent aggressively on product development and marketing in recent years, betting it could afford losses as long as it attracted new users. But that growth stalled this year after it exceeded 300 million active monthly users, less than a fifth of Facebook Inc’s users and below Facebook’s Instagram.

The company’s net loss narrowed to $102.9 million, or 15 cents per share, in the third quarter, from $131.7 million, or 20 cents per share, a year earlier.

Twitter also said it would roll out “meaningful updates” next month affecting how it protects users from abusive content, an issue for which the company has endured growing criticism.

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Categories: Job Cuts, Layoffs, News, Profits, staff

8 Year Old Boys Inculcated with Anti-Muslim Hatred



A young Muslim woman walked cuddling her 15 month old baby to the local grocers to get some basic food items. As she walked to the store, 3 young children – one who wore a ski mask, started taunting and insulting her. She stated that they were no more than 8-10 years old.

Taunts and abuse included, “Muslim B****” as they laughed and giggled at the Hijab clad mother walking to the store. As she walked on, the young children started to throw stones at her leading her to try and protect her young child. Upset and shocked, she called for help and shouted at the young children. As people looked to assist her, the young children ran off.

We have previously raised in our 2015 annual report that nearly 1 in 10 of the street based anti-Muslim hate incidents that were reported to us, came from schools. We also highlighted the fact that for the first time in 2015, the average age of the perpetrator of anti-Muslim hatred had fallen from 15-35 to 13-18 years old, a significant drop.

Clearly, in such cases, anti-Muslim sentiment has been picked up from somewhere. The likelihood is that it probably has been picked up from parents or carers and in the home environment. Which makes it even more important for schools to remain vigilant and to challenge such comments and behaviour on site and off-site.

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Categories: anti-Muslim hatred, boys, children, Hijab, News

Casey Report Findings Will Take a Wide Look At Integration Issues


The Louise Casey review of the state of integration within communities in the United Kingdom may well be launched soon and in the coming months. The Government’s Integration Czar, she has taken a measured, yet honest view based on hard evidence of what is impacting on communities in the United Kingdom.

Some of the focus of the report will be on barriers to employment and cultural practices that hold back women from employment. Evidence over the last decade has shown that Pakistani and Bangladeshi women do suffer significant barriers to employment, yet anyone who knows Dame Louise Casey will know that she will not pull any punches on forensically looking at areas that may also be sensitive and she is right in doing so. Cultural and gender identified roles do not have a part to play in modern society and neither should religion be used to hold back the social, mental and emotional development of women within communities.

The review will also look at areas of extremism and immigration and changes at local levels in communities. Casey’s work has extended over a year now and was first initiated by the previous Prime Minister. With decades of experience on working on anti-social behaviour and child safeguarding, she is best placed to have led this work and to have some honest discussions about immigration when the report is launched. Granted these discussions will not be easy, but they have to happen if we are to reduce barriers between communities and to take the oxygen out of extremist groups using this topic to recruit predominantly vulnerable young men.


There are findings which will shape how this Government moves ahead on extremism in the future. Islamist groups who continue to build barriers between statutory agencies, including the Government, will be highlighted. The narrative of ‘them and us’ which has gone unchallenged for far too long, may well be highlighted and if so, it is essential so that young people are not fed half-truths and downright lies that the Government ‘spies’ on Muslims because they are Muslims. This simply exacerbates fractures in communities and ensures that Muslims never reach their full earning or social potential as they withdraw into a world of conspiracy theories.

Equally, by looking at issues like immigration, we hope that the Casey review will be able to start a discussion which means that extremist far right groups can have the oxygen on which they fuel their activities, taken away from them.

We need a new momentum in the coming Parliament, one which is realistic around integration and extremism and there are links across these areas. Those who suggest that they are not, are deluding themselves.

What we also need is less of a focus on supporting integration by the ‘kumbaya politics’ of interfaith work that is promoted by some organisations and with pictures and soundbites doing nothing more than feeding the egos of the leaders of some interfaith groups. We need substantive hard discussions if we are to fill the real vaccum that has developed around integration for some communities.

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Categories: communities, immigration, integration, Islamist, Louise Casey, News, Review

Yazidi women win EU Parliament’s Sakharov Prize


The European Parliament awarded its Sakharov Prize for freedom of thought on Thursday to two Iraqi Yazidi women who were held as sex slaves by Islamic State militants and now campaign for human rights.

Nadia Murad and Lamiya Aji Bashar were among thousands of women and girls abducted, tortured and sexually abused by Islamic State fighters after the militants rounded up Yazidis in the village of Kocho, near Sinjar in northwest Iraq, in 2014.

The Yazidi are a religious sect whose beliefs combine elements of several ancient Middle Eastern religions. Islamic State considers them devil-worshippers.

“This is a very symbolic and significant decision to support these two survivors who came to Europe as refugees and found shelter in the European Union,” European Parliament president Martin Schulz told a news conference after the announcement.

He added the prize meant the parliament was now supporting them in their fight not only for dignity but to give testimony as witnesses to atrocities. The prize is 50,000 euros (44,704 pound), with an award ceremony scheduled for December.

Islamic State insurgents overran Sinjar in August 2014, systematically killing, capturing and enslaving thousands of Yazidi inhabitants

Murad, now aged 23, was held by IS in Mosul but escaped her captors in November 2014, reached a refugee camp and eventually made her way to Germany.

She has since become active as an advocate for the Yazidis, and refugee and women’s rights in general, as well as campaigning against human trafficking.

She has briefed the U.N. Security Council on the problem of human trafficking and last month launched Nadia’s Initiative to help victims of genocide. She has called for the massacre of Yazidis to be recognised as genocide.

Bashar, 18, was captured in the same raid as Murad and also kept as a sex slave by IS. She escaped in March but was badly disfigured and blinded in one eye when a landmine went off as she fled. Two companions were killed.

She now lives in Germany, where she has undergone treatment for her wounds, and works as an advocate for the Yazidis.

Displaced women from the minority Yazidi sect, who have joined the Kurdish peshmerga forces to fight against Islamic State militants, attend a ceremony in Dohuk, northern Iraq August 3, 2015. Masoud Barzani, president of Iraq's Kurdistan region, vowed on Monday to help the Yazidis return to their homes, after they fled from Islamic State last year. REUTERS/Ari Jalal

Displaced women from the minority Yazidi sect, who have joined the Kurdish peshmerga forces to fight against Islamic State militants, attend a ceremony in Dohuk, northern Iraq August 3, 2015. Masoud Barzani, president of Iraq’s Kurdistan region, vowed on Monday to help the Yazidis return to their homes, after they fled from Islamic State last year. REUTERS/Ari Jalal


Mass Yazidi graves have been uncovered in the area north of Sinjar mountain, which was taken from IS in Dec. 2014. Kurdish forces retook Sinjar town in November 2014 in a two-day offensive backed by air strikes from a U.S.-led coalition

U.N. investigators said in a report in June that Islamic State is committing genocide against the Yazidis in Syria and Iraq to destroy the religious community of 400,000 people through killings, sexual slavery and other crimes.

Such a designation, rare under international law, would mark the first recognised genocide carried out by non-state actors, rather than a state or paramilitaries acting on its behalf.

The Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought, named after the late Russian dissident and scientist Andrei Sakharov is awarded each year by the European Parliament. Set up in 1988, it honours individuals and organisations defending human rights and basic freedoms.

Murad and Aji Bashar were selected by Schulz and political group leaders from a shortlist with two more political nominees.

The others were Can Dundar, a leading Turkish journalist sentenced to six years in prison for publishing state secrets involving Ankara’s Syria operation, and Mustafa Dzhemilev, a senior Crimean Tartar politician and human rights activist banned by Russia from entering the annexed Crimea peninsular.

Last year, the prize went to Raif Badawi, a blogger from Saudi Arabia serving a prison sentence for insulting Islam.

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Categories: EU Parliament, Lamiya Aji Bashar, Nadia Murad, News, Raif Badawi, Sakharov Prize, Yazidi women

Supporters of Tanveer Ahmed share photos of killer ‘from prison’


A Faith Matters investigation has uncovered social media accounts sharing ‘new’ photos of Tanveer Ahmed allegedly taken inside Barlinnie Prison.

Tanveer Ahmed is serving a life sentence for stabbing Ahmadi shopkeeper Asad Shah in Glasgow in March. He claimed that Shah had ‘disrespected’ Islam due to his claim of prophethood.

The recent photos of Ahmed appeared on both Facebook and Instagram in October. It emerged last month that audio clips apparently from Ahmed’s prison phone calls were posted online. In total, five separate audio clips have appeared on social media sites since May.

On October 10, a ‘new’ photo of Ahmed emerged. The individual who uploaded the photo captioned it in Urdu: “Mr Ghazi Tanveer al-Hussaini in the jail. May Allah always keep him happy.”
tanveerahmedprisonoct10A second photo allegedly taken inside prison shows Tanveer Ahmed stood next to an unknown individual on October 23. The caption reads: “After the killing of fake claimant of prophet-hood,  he is sitting in jail like a lion. Latest photo of Ghazi Tanveer Ahmed in the jail”.

tanveerahmedprisonoct23Ghazi is an Arabic term used to honour Muslim warriors who were victorious in battle against  the opponents of Islam. The page ‘Ghazi Tanveer Ahmed  Qadiri’ gained 7,000  ‘likes’ before Facebook removed it.

Our latest report warns of a growing personality cult around Tanveer Ahmed. His supporters glorify him as an ‘authentic’ defender of the Islamic faith. They also view him as continuing the work of Mumtaz Qadri – who murdered Pakistani politician Salman Taseer in 2011. Qadri was then hung for his crimes earlier this year.

Faith Matters has previously written to HMP Barlinnie and Police Scotland urging an immediate investigation.

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Categories: Asad Shah, News, Tanveer Ahmed

Twenty dead, more than 100 wounded, in Pakistan police academy attack


Gunmen stormed a Pakistani police training academy in the southwestern city of Quetta late on Monday night, killing at least 20 people and wounding more than 100, officials said.

Some 200 trainees are stationed at the facility, officials said, and some had been taken hostage.

Mir Sarfaraz Bugti, home minister of Baluchistan province, of which Quetta is the capital, confirmed early on Tuesday that five to six gunmen had attacked a dormitory inside the training facility while cadets rested and slept.

“So far there are at least twenty dead and over a one hundred injured,” Bugti told media. “Among the injured is an army captain.”

A Pakistani soldier stands guard outside the Police Training Center after an attack on the center in Quetta, Pakistan October 25, 2016. REUTERS/Naseer Ahmed

A Pakistani soldier stands guard outside the Police Training Center after an attack on the center in Quetta, Pakistan October 25, 2016. REUTERS/Naseer Ahmed

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Categories: Attack, Baluchistan, gunmen, News, Pakistan, Quetta, terrorism

‘No to mosque’ petition attracts anti-Muslim comments and conspiracies



A petition opposing a proposed Islamic Centre in the Lancashire town of Darwen has gained over 2,000 signatures in under a week. Local MP Jake Berry is said to have backed to the petition. But others have criticised this decision.

The petition on change.org has little description. Its letter to Jake Berry MP reads “No to mosque in Darwen”. Some signatories have been blunt in their opposition. Others were concerned that the building is in a ‘conservation area and is not suitable for this type of development’. Others fear an increase in parking congestion. Or call on the council to provide housing for the homeless.

A top-rated comment from a local read: “they don’t need any more mosques they have enough. will cause more disruption and traffic chaos. getting out of hand now .once a proud mill town, now being turned into takeaways, cheap shops. taxis..how much more of our heritage are we going to be deprived of. the workers of this town built darwen,now it seems like its being bought by foreign investors brick by brick. shame on the council if it allows this atrocity. god bless us all.”

A spokesman for the group, however, urged residents to raise their concerns directly. And insisted that parking congestion would not be an issue as most worshippers ‘will be walking to the centre’. The group insist that its primary function will serve as an Islamic education centre.

But the nature of a public petition means that individuals who live outside the area have also signed. One such individual resides in Toronto, Canada. Her opposition rests on the claim that: “there is more laughter in a Pub !”

Another local resident wrote: “Darwen is a well loved town and we do not want muslim religion taking over.” Yet, census data reveals otherwise. In the ward of Sunnyhurt, the Muslim population is just 177 (2.9 per cent) of a population of 6,183. The Christian population was 68.8 per cent. Since the 2001 census, the number of Muslims in the area declined from 255 residents. Nor is the desire for an education centre an unreasonable request. As the nearest mosque can hold 150 people. Nor should we forget that the primary function of the proposal is for an education centre. The function of a mosque is secondary and reflective of apparent demand.

Far-right social media accounts urge supporters to sign and share. One Facebook, one individual called on the proposed centre to be ‘burned down’.

The petition contains a number of unpleasant and offensive comments. An individual based in Swindon wrote: “because i5lam it’s like canc3r !!!” Some peddled conspiracies of ‘Islamisation’. Others feared the conversion would bring violence or disorder.

Yet the petition became less about a proposed Islamic Centre in Darwen. For many, there’s something larger, more sinister afoot. Conspiracism soon appeared on the petition. It soon became a question of national character and identity. What Britain seems to represent and how Islam and Muslims fit into it. Or what they fear losing – no matter how imagined or ignorant.

Individuals based in Falmouth, Derbyshire, Birmingham, Liverpool, Manchester, Blackpool, and Bognor Regis signed the petition.  A user in Bristol warned that “there is No place in Britain for Islam, it is totally in opposed in its teachings to British Generic culture.” The comment ended with the bizarre notion that “Blood on the streets is coming, because the government and local councils,are corrupt.”

The application remains in the consultation period. Blackburn with Darwen Borough Council expect to make a decision on the application on 15 December 2016.

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Categories: Hate Speech, mosque, News, petition

France starts clearing ‘jungle’ migrant camp in Calais


France began clearing the sprawling “Jungle” migrant camp in Calais on Monday, with hundreds carrying suitcases queuing outside a hangar to be resettled in reception centres across the country.

The first buses departed less than an hour after immigration workers started the operation and officials predicted some 2,500 would leave on the first day.

Armed police fanned out around the warehouse and across the squalid shanty-town after a night during which small groups of migrants burnt toilet blocks and hurled stones at security forces in protest at the plans to dismantle the camp.

The Socialist government says it is closing the camp, home to 6,500 migrants fleeing war and poverty, on humanitarian grounds. It plans to relocate them to 450 centres across France.

“I hope this works out. I’m alone and I just have to study,” said Amadou Diallo from the West African nation of Guinea. “It doesn’t matter where I end up, I don’t really care.”

French Interior Ministry spokesman Pierre-Henry Brandet said that authorities had not needed to use force and that the large police presence at the camp on Monday was just for security.

Many of the migrants and refugees hail from countries like Afghanistan, Syria and Eritrea and had wanted had reach Britain, which bars most of them on the basis of EU rules requiring them to seek asylum in the first European country they set foot in.

But even as the process began, the fate of about 1,300 unaccompanied child migrants remained uncertain.

Discussions are underway with British authorities over who should take in children with no family ties in Britain, the interior ministry spokesman said, adding that 200 had left for Britain last week.

French police stand near as migrants with their belongings queue near barriers at the start of their evacuation and transfer to reception centers in France, and the dismantlement of the camp called the "Jungle" in Calais, France, October 24, 2016.   REUTERS/Pascal Rossignol

French police stand near as migrants with their belongings queue near barriers at the start of their evacuation and transfer to reception centers in France, and the dismantlement of the camp called the “Jungle” in Calais, France, October 24, 2016. REUTERS/Pascal Rossignol


The migrants will be separated into families, adults, unaccompanied minors and vulnerable individuals, including elderly people and single women.

They will then be bussed to the reception centres where they will receive medical checks and, if they have not already done so, decide whether to apply for asylum.

The far-right National Front party said the government plan would create mini-Calais camps across France.

Officials expect 60 buses to leave the camp on Monday. The government expects the evacuation will take at least a week.

“It’s going well. We knew this morning that there would be a lot of people, and that’s what’s happening,” regional Prefect Fabienne Buccio

“There was no pushing, the minors arrived. We had a particular concern for the minors, paid them particular attention, but it went well,” she added.

While calm prevailed on Monday, charity workers expect hundreds will try and stay and cautioned the mood could change later in the week when work begins on dismantling the camp.

“There’s a risk tensions increase in the week because at some point the bulldozers are going to have to come in,” said Fabrice Durieux from the charity Salam.

Others warned that many migrants who remained determined to reach Britain would simply scatter into the surrounding countryside, only to regroup in Calais at a later date.

“Each time they dismantle part of the camp it’s the same thing. You’re going to see them go into hiding and then come back. The battles will continue,” said Christian Salome, president of non-profit group Auberge des Migrants.

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Categories: Calais, France, Jungle, News, refugees